Hagia Sophia: Mosque or Museum?

One of the most memorable highlights of all my visits to Istanbul over the years has always been the time spent in the Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) museum. First founded as a Christian cathedral in 537 CE by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, it was converted into a mosque when Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih in 1453. In 1934, following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire some years earlier and the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey, President Ataturk issued a decree reclassifying Hagia Sophia as a museum. Alongside the Topkapi Museum, the Hagia Sophia has been the most visited and top rated tourist attraction in Istanbul for many years now.

But what will happen now that President Erdogan has reversed that 1934 decree and restored Hagia Sophia’s status to being a mosque? Will people from all backgrounds still be able to visit Hagia Sophia and gaze upon its beauty and many historical treasures?

The official spokesperson for President Erdogan, Ibrahim Kalin, tried to reassure the world, saying “all are welcome to visit this beautiful house of worship and magnificent cultural site.”

This does not directly address concerns about what those visitors will actually still be able to see – and perhaps more importantly – no longer see when they visit the Hagia Sophia.

For example, will the below 10th century Byzantine mosaic of Christ Pantocrator still be on display or will it now be covered up?

Will the below Apse mosaic of Mary with the infant Jesus on her lap which adorns one of the half-domes in Hagia Sophia still be on display?

The Hagia Sophia abounds in many such historical riches and it would be a tragedy if people were no longer allowed to directly see and study them.

Judging by the remarks on social media, the decision earlier today in Turkey to restore the status of Hagia Sophia from a museum to a mosque has divided many Muslims living in the West.

When I last visited Istanbul in May 2019, I stayed in the Sultan Ahmet quarter, less than a two minute walk away from the Hagia Sophia. It was Ramadan at the time and early every morning I was woken by the call to prayer and went to the stunning Sultan Ahmet mosque (Blue Mosque) which is situated directly opposite the Hagia Sophia – it was also a two minute walk away from my hotel.

Istanbul is a city of many such glorious mosques. However, there is only one Hagia Sophia.

At a time when the world desperately needs to take steps towards more freedom and greater tolerance, it would be a shame if Turkey took a step in the opposite direction. We will have to wait and see.

Update 1 (July 11th, 2020): The official spokesperson for President Erdogan, Ibrahim Kalin, has issued another statement saying that “all visitors will have access to the religious and cultural heritage of Hagia Sophia including icons and mosaics.” That appears to be good news indeed – though we will still have to wait and see what happens in practice first, including whether this means that all visitors will still have full access to the icons and mosaics as currently.


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2 Responses to Hagia Sophia: Mosque or Museum?

  1. Brendan says:

    Thanks Inayat, very good summary . I’ve been there a few times myself, incredible building of intersectional history. It’s frustrating that some (stress ‘some’) Muslims who come from certain expressions of their Din react with such glee to what they perceive as a physical conquering and outward dominance of other faiths. I was happily surprised to read Roshan Salih agrees with you but his website takes a polar opposite view !

    • Yes, I was pleasantly surprised at Roshan’s response. I was not at all surprised by the 5Pillarz deputy editor Dilly Hussain’s response. He did not appear to deal with the issue of the historical Christian iconography in the Hagia Sophia at all.

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